Q.1 Fill in the blanks:
- _______ was a word used for large landowners in Tamil
- The grambhojaka often got his land cultivated by the_____
- Ploughmen were known as_____ in Tamil
- Most grihapatis were _____ landowners
(b) Slaves and workers.
Q.2 Describe the functions of the grambhojka. Why do you think he was powerful?
Answer: Gramabhojaka was the local headman, as well as the hamlet’s greatest landowner at times. He was a strong member of the community who, in the name of the king, collected taxes from the people, served as a judge, and enforced the king’s rule in the village.
Q.3 List the crafts persons who would have been present in both villages and cities.
Answer: Both villages and towns had craftsmen such as blacksmiths, weavers, carpenters, and potters. They were critical in supplying commodities and services that allowed any settlement to run smoothly.
Q.4 Choose the correct answer:
(a) Ring wells were used for:
2. Washing clothes
(b) Punch marked coins were made of:
(c) Mathura was important:
3. Religious centre
4. Forested area
(d) Shrenis were associations of:
Drainage: Ring wells are rows of pots or ceramic rings stacked one on top of the other discovered by archaeologists. In certain situations, they were utilised as latrines, as well as sewers and waste dumps.
Silver: The designs on the coins that were punched on them gave rise to the term “punch-marked coins.” They are coins produced from metals such as copper and silver.
Religious centre: For more than 2500 years, Mathura has been a significant colony, having various temples inside the walled city. There were Buddhist monasteries and Jain shrines, and it was a major centre of Lord Krishna’s adoration.
Craftspersons: Shrenis was a guild of artisans and merchants. These craftspeople’s shrenis offered instruction, sourced raw materials, and disseminated the final product.
Q.5 Which of the iron tools shown on page 79 (of the NCERT textbook) would have been important for agriculture? What would the other tools have been used for?
Answer: Tongs, axes, and a sickle are the iron implements on page 79, as illustrated in the illustration below. A sickle would have been used for agriculture, an axe would have been used for cutting trees and gathering fuel, and a blacksmith would have used tongs to make tools out of hot iron.
Q.6 Compare the drainage system in your locality with that of the cities mentioned in the lesson. What similarities and differences do you notice?
Answer: The drainage system in our locality is the technologically advanced version of the drainage system used by past civilisations. In ancient times – mud bricks, ceramic and thatch were used to make them. The drawback was that the materials were not durable and would fall down with constant use. Today’s modern drainage systems are made of durable materials like concrete and metal. However, just like in the past, drainage is made by many rings which are stacked one over another. The rings are also made into a tube-like structure. These are the similarities we can notice today.
Q.7 If you have seen craftspersons at work, describe in a short paragraph what they do. (Hint: how do they get the raw materials, what kind of equipment do they use, how do they work, what happens to the finished product)
Answer: In both towns and villages, I’ve seen artisans such as cobblers and carpenters. Cobblers are a regular sight in the city, and one can be seen on practically every corner. Shoes are repaired by sewing damaged leather or glueing a fluttering sole. Handmade leather shoes and slippers are created in villages and sold locally or in metropolitan marketplaces for a fair price.
Q.8 List the functions performed by men and women who live in your city or village. In what ways are these similar to those performed by people who lived in Mathura? In what ways are they different?
Solution: This project should be done yourself.